Agrawli’s Blog

January 12, 2011

North-Africa Celebrates Yennayer 2961

Filed under: TAMAZIGHT — Sabri @ 12:00 pm

Let us first mention how some scholar sexplain the inception of the Amazigh calendar.  According to them, the origin of Yennayer refers to the first mention of Amazigh people in historical records: the founding by Amazigh Pharaoh Sheshonq I of the 22nd pharaonic dynasty in 958 BC, followed by the 23rd and 24th Amazigh pharaonic dynasties, over 200 years (958 BC-712 BC) of Amazigh rule in ancient Egypt. According to the ancient Egyptian historian Manetho (3rd century BC) and archeological records, Amazigh Pharaonic dynasties brought back stability to Egypt by reunifying it and defending it against foreign invasions from the East.

In summary, Yennayer 2961 that we celebrate this year commemorates the first mention of the Amazigh people in history. Significantly, it refers to Imazighen as the contributors to the glorious civilization of Egyptians. 13 January corresponds to the end of armed conflict between Imazighen and the Egyptian pharaohs.

Here are some few traditions related to the celebration of Yennayer (on January 13th) in some parts of North-Africa as they had been described at the beginning of the twentieth century by some French ethnographers since our ancestors didn’t keep records of their practices and since these traditions are unfortunately in the process of disappearing if nobody act efficiently in order to save them.

The festivities are strictly a family affair involving specific dishes. Couscous with chicken is the predominant dish, which embodies the whole symbolism of the event. Nowadays, the celebration  -when it takes place- is limited to a special meal like, usually prepared in a household with elderly members or to a party usually initiated by young active members of Amazigh movements in urban societies where most of Amazigh people live today.

Yennayer should be an occasion to learn more about the cultural background of our ancestors, and to make every effort to transmit this heritage to the young generation that hardly speaks and cares about its significance.

Celebrating  Yennayer  could  also  be  a  step  to  affirm  a  fundamental  cultural  aspect  of  Imazighen,  and  furthermore  an  attempt  to  revise  or  reappraise  the  official  historiography.


June 30, 2009


Filed under: 1 — Sabri @ 9:48 pm

 All myths, that is, have their grounding in the actual generalized experience of ancient people, and represent their attempts to impose a satisfactory, graspable, and humanizing shape on it. That shape, argues Mouloud Mammeri, springs from the human mind itself, and it becomes the shape of the world that that mind perceives as ‘natural’, ‘given’ or ‘true’. Mammeri is very aware of ‘the idea’ ; [ que toute production doive témoigner De la soif de liberté du peuple] . Herby, the images of revolt and flying-off fetch us a better answer. We fight against disindigenisation. We come up in the world. In fact, no hedges or ditches or any kind of edge can cease the flow of the indigenous iternity. ‘Timmuzgha’ in the case.

Timmuzgha, the ancestral values to be designed to be part of the co-existent Mediterranean, expressed in a no doubt abbreviated form in the previous Med, 1/3. But the substantialist mode of thinking is perhaps most unrestrained when it comes to the search for certain ‘explanatory factors’ tend towards concinnity and concomitancy, and sure towards ‘the cosmopolitan’. In fact, all [values] are human-centred or driven by human interests, and therefore ‘indigenous in various respects’ .

Here is the definition of indigenous peoples, clearly emphasizing the original occupancy as opposed to recent settlers, is as follow:

Indigenous communities, peoples and nations are those which, having a historical continuity with pre-invasion and pre-colonial societies that developed on their territories, consider themselves distinct from other sectors of societies now prevailing in those territories, or part of them. They form at present non-dominant sectors of society and are determined to preserve, develop and transmit to future generations their ancestral territories, and their ethnic identity, as the basis of their continued existence as peoples, in accordance with their own cultural patterns, social institutions and legal systems”. (Barume2000:33)

The quotation above brighten the notion of indigenous peoples in this manner; that being indigenous would largely be attributed to span of one’s memory and one’s interpretation of the concept of ancient times.

The lords in the Mediterranean area of the middle age were clever and wiser. They invented ‘FRANKISH TONGUE’. A common language that permit routine communication between groups and continents.

So, I would like to ask this question. What lies beneath the Mediterranean?.

References and notes:
1 – Nadjia, LACETE -TIGZIRI. Relecture de La Colline oubliée de Mouloud Mammeri. University of Paris XIII, 1998.
2 – Semali, Ladislaus M. and Joe L. Kincheloe (Eds.). 1999. What is indigenous knowledge? Voices from the academy. New York and London. Falmer press.
3 – The quotation in this article is included in Semali & Ladislaus’s What is indigenous knowledge? Voices from the academy. 1999.


June 25, 2009

Ulac Smah Ulac

Filed under: 1 — Sabri @ 9:55 am

Matub Lunes

Assassined in

25- June- 1998


Listen to the great song by



June 24, 2009

THE RIF: Things Should be so Transparent

Filed under: 1 — Sabri @ 11:05 pm


RIF, the land of heroes, civilization and much more to say, has turned to a stage on which some actors perform their strange outlandish skills. Indeed, one would wonder how those politicians make work their projects.

The majority of people in RIF, as in many parts of Morocco, lead to a very harsh life as a result of the deliberated marginalization of the Jackobian policy. The latter has always aimed at excluding and eradicating all what is known as diversity, which is deeply rooted in the Moroccan social imaginary. What is more is that this policy’s goal is to assault, embrace and then at the end to ravish all this richness which, we normally, should be proud of.

With the beginning of 1950, the rifians have not given any chance to take part in the process of developing their region. Furthermore, the central regime has turned a deaf ear to the RIF’s citizens and they have not taken into consideration their contribution in the independence of Morocco. In fact, the blood which blew out of the veins of the rifians has been utterly forgotten. It’s a complete shame not to give honor to these giants people who led a fierce resistance against the imperial colonialism for the sake of this beloved country.

It’s only recently that the central regime has, to some extent, changed their old policy and seemed to be flexible in tackling RIF’s issues. This attempt is probably meant to hurdle the crucial cause which is concrete and fair reconciliation. Obviously the regime has failed to get rid of the gross violations committed in the past. Undoubtedly, to reconcile with RIF, the regime should candidly take into account the following claims:

Reconsider the fundamental role of the rifians’ resistance against imperialism.

– Fair treatment of the violations committed in the past.

Implement good governance in the RIF region.

Recognition of Amazigh identity and culture.

Official recognition of Amazigh language.

The above mentioned claims, in addition to many others like sustainable development are the most tough challenges that the Moroccan regime faces today. Unless the regime has a frank intention to put an end to all sorts of marginalization and inequality, it is impossible to talk about any kind of development and democracy.

To sum up all what we have stated above, it is incumbent upon us; citizens, media, civil society and political actors to work hand in hand so we can change the situation for the better and bring prosperity to the RIF community. This, of course, will never come all of sudden, but it requires perseverance, struggle and most of all confidence.


Rif. Morocco

May 30, 2009


Filed under: 1 — Sabri @ 8:12 pm

UN Indigenous Forum Calls for Consultations on Patents

29 May 2009 – A United Nations conference on indigenous affairs wrapped up its two-week gathering today, making a host of recommendations, including the worldwide establishment of a mechanism requiring patent offices to publicize the origins of products derived from indigenous knowledge when exclusive rights to the design are requested.

The Eighth Session of the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues also called on States and corporations to involve indigenous people in all negotiations relating to the entry of mining industries, infrastructure projects and other development schemes into their communities.

One of the texts approved by the Forum, a subsidiary of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), called on the international community to ensure the application of culturally relevant, gender-balanced and gender-based analysis and gender budgeting as critical elements of economic and social development, consistent with the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

The Declaration, a landmark text adopted in 2007, outlines the rights of the world’s estimated 370 million indigenous people and outlaws discrimination against them. It sets out rights to culture, identity, language, employment, health, education and other issues.

The 16-member Forum – which drew around 2,000 indigenous representatives from all regions of the world, as well as representatives of Member States, civil society, academia, some 35 UN entities and other intergovernmental organizations – approved a provisional agenda for next year, including a half-day discussion on North America.

The Source:

April 21, 2009


Filed under: 1 — Sabri @ 9:56 pm

The Durban Declaration and Programme of Action


izerfanThe Review Conference will review progress and assess the implementation of the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action (DDPA).
Adopted by consensus at the 2001 World Conference against Racism (WCAR) in Durban, South Africa, the DDPA is a comprehensive, action-oriented document that proposes concrete measures to combat racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. It is holistic in its vision, addresses a wide range of issues, and contains far-reaching recommendations and practical measures.
The DDPA embodies the firm commitment of the international community to tackle racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance at the national, regional and international level. Recognition that no country can claim to be free of racism, that racism is a global concern, and that tackling it should be a universal effort, is an important achievement. Although the DDPA is not legally binding, it has a strong moral value and serves as a basis for advocacy efforts worldwide.

• The DDPA reasserts the principles of equality and non-discrimination as core human rights, thus transforming victims of discrimination into rights-holders and States into duty bearers.
• Assigning the primary responsibility of combating racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance to States, the DDPA also calls for the active involvement of international and non-governmental organizations, political parties, national human rights institutions, the private sector, the media and civil society at large.
• The DDPA calls for the universal ratification of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination and its effective implementation by State Parties to the Convention.
• The DDPA adopts a victim-oriented approach to problems of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. Specific recommendations are formulated to combat discrimination against Africans and persons of African descent, Asians and persons of Asian descent, indigenous peoples, migrants, refugees, minorities, the Roma and other groups.
• The DDPA recognizes that victims often suffer from multiple or aggravated forms of discrimination based on sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, social origin, property, birth or other status. It highlights the gender dimension of racial discrimination and attributes a key role to women in the development of programmes to combat racism and intolerance.
• The DDPA emphasizes the importance of preventive and concerted action, especially in the field of education and awareness-raising, and calls for the strengthening of human rights education.
• The DDPA calls for comprehensive national action plans to eradicate racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. It calls for the reinforcement of national institutions and it formulates concrete recommendations in the areas of national legislation and the administration of justice.
• The DDPA outlines measures to address discrimination in the fields of employment, health, policing, and education. It calls on States to adopt policies and programmes to counter incitement to racial hatred in the media, including on the Internet. It calls for the collection of disaggregated data, as well as additional research, as the basis for targeted actions.
• The DDPA urges States to adopt measures of affirmative or positive action to create equal opportunities for victims of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance in the political, economic, social and cultural decision-making spheres.
• The DDPA urges governments to provide effective remedies, recourse, redress and compensatory measures to victims and to ensure that victims have access to legal assistance so they can pursue such measures. It also recommends the creation of competent national bodies to adequately investigate allegations of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia or related intolerance.
• The DDPA acknowledges that slavery and the slave trade are crimes against humanity, and should have always been so. It expresses regret over the fact that the slave trade and colonialism contributed to lasting social and economic inequalities. It welcomes the efforts of UNESCO’s Slave Route Project.
• Concerning the Middle East, the DDPA expresses concern about the plight of the Palestinian people under foreign occupation and recognizes the inalienable right of the Palestinian people to self-determination and the right to an independent state. It also recognizes the right to security for all countries in the region, including Israel, and calls upon all governments to support the peace process and bring it to an early conclusion.
• The DDPA recalls that the Holocaust must never be forgotten.
• Last but not least, the Programme of Action spells out a number of strategies to achieve full and effective equality through international cooperation. They involve an effective international legal framework, enhanced regional and international cooperation, an active role for the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, and the participation of a wide variety of actors, including civil society, non-governmental organizations and youth in the struggle against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance.

the sourse:

April 7, 2009


Filed under: 1 — Sabri @ 10:40 pm

The  Moroccan  Labyrinth

oil-extraction4In  1898, after losing Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines to the U.S., Spain focused its colonial aims on northern Morocco, establishing a Spanish Protectorate in 1912. From 1920 to 1926, Spanish military attempts to conquer the territory were resisted by the guerrilla forces of the Rif’ leader Abdel-Krim. Thousands of Spanish soldiers died-including 15,000 during a two-week period in 1921 known as the Defeat of Annual-and the Spanish Army responded with aerial bombings, chemical weapons and widespread atrocities.

THE MOROCCAN LABYRINTH reveals how this colonial conflict served as the prologue to the Spanish Civil War, with losses in the African war undermining the monarchy and politically emboldening the “African militarists,” including generals such as Francisco Franco, who in 1936 launched a revolt against the Spanish Republic. Ironically, in order to escape famine and poverty, thousands of Moroccans enlisted in the Spanish Falangist movement and found themselves fighting for their former enemies in Spain against Republican forces.

This documentary features rare archival footage, propaganda films of the era, contemporary interviews with elderly Moroccan combatants, their children and leading international historians, who discuss the Rif War, how the conflict influenced political developments in Spain, how Moroccan mercenaries were used as shock troops during the Spanish Civil War and then, despite financial promises, were immediately expelled from Spain after the Nationalist victory.

THE MOROCCAN LABYRINTH plumbs the political complexities of this little-known Spanish colonial war as crucial historical background to the Civil War, showing how thousands of Moroccans, the traditional enemies of Spain, became allies with Franco’s nationalist forces and were exploited, if not maimed or killed, in a conflict that was never their own.

A Film by Julio Sánchez Veiga

March 22, 2009


Filed under: TAMAZIGHT — Sabri @ 7:22 pm

UNESCO Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger

amanarThe new journal Amanar, in Tifinagh, is distributed in Agadez, Niger
©Jacques Roure

UNESCO’s Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger is intended to raise awareness about language endangerment and the need to safeguard the world’s linguistic diversity among policy-makers, speaker communities and the general public, and to be a tool to monitor the status of endangered languages and the trends in linguistic diversity at the global level.
The latest edition of the Atlas (2009), made possible thanks to the support of the Government of Norway, lists about 2,500 languages (among which 230 languages extinct since 1950), approaching the generally-accepted estimate of some 3,000 endangered languages worldwide. For each language, the Atlas provides its name, degree of endangerment (see below) and the country or countries where it is spoken.
The online edition provides additional information on numbers of speakers, relevant policies and projects, sources, ISO codes and geographic coordinates. This free Internet-based version of the Atlas for the first time permits wide accessibility and allows for interactivity and timely updating of information, based on feedback provided by users.
Degrees of endangerment
The present edition designates the degrees of endangerment a little differently than the previous editions. The new terminology is based on UNESCO’s Language Vitality and Endangerment framework that establishes six degrees of vitality/endangerment based on nine factors. Of these factors, the most salient is that of intergenerational transmission.

Degree of endangerment / Intergenerational Language   Transmission

safe:  language is spoken by all generations; intergenerational transmission is uninterrupted
>> not included in the Atlas

unsafe: most children speak the language, but it may be restricted to certain domains (e.g., home)

definitely endangered

children no longer learn the language as mother tongue in the home


severely endangered: language is spoken by grandparents and older generations; while the parent generation may understand it, they do not speak it to     children or among themselves 

critically endangered: the youngest speakers are grandparents and older, and they speak the language partially and infrequently

extinct: there are no speakers left
>> included in the Atlas if presumably extinct since the 1950s

The source,


Filed under: TAMAZIGHT — Sabri @ 7:19 pm

The  Moroccan  participation  in  the  Spanish  Civil  War

Summary  Report  of  an International  seminar

guerra_civil5Upon the initiative of the Center for Common Memory and the Future an international seminar on the “issue of joint memory between juridical and judiciary handling, political handling and Human Rights: the case of Moroccan participation in the Spanish Civil War ” was held in Tetouan on 26, 27, 28 February and March 1st 2009. This initiative aimed at dealing with one of the matters between Morocco and Spain in the framework of the decision taken by the Spanish judge Garzon Balthazar regarding the opening of the issue of the Spanish civil war . It is to be recalled that the Center, in the framework of the discussions underway between the Spanish and Moroccan parties who share the same objectives with the Center, began reflecting on the handling of Moroccan and Spanish issues since Al Hoceima meeting (March 2007).

After the opening session, the international seminar program was divided into three working sessions that looked into the following three aspects:
• Introduction to understanding the Spanish Civil War
• Moroccan participation in the Spanish Civil War
• Moroccan participation in the Spanish Civil War:
– Legal, judicial, and political handling
– From the standpoint of Human Rights

Three films were shown in connection with the seminar that dealt with Moroccan participation in the Spanish Civil War, in particular « Arhaj » the Poison, the Moroccan Labyrinth, and the Loosers, which was projected and discussed at the opening session at the Cinema Español. Twenty-five contributions were presented during the seminar sessions on the aforesaid subjects by Moroccan and Spanish speakers from different generations, specializations, various bodies, institutions and regions in both countries which reflects the significance of the subject matter and its vitality, as well as the interconnections in Moroccan/Spanish relations and the intention to overcome the constraints impeding the building of a common memory making it possible to build bridges toward a future that will free upcoming generations from the consequences of the past.

Considering the ideas and approaches presented in the various contributions, we suggest grouping them together as follows:
1) Concept of civil war: This is about the way of building this concept in modern and contemporary history in the framework of identity construction according to the historical continuity of society. This requires the use of a critical approach as a basis for memory, by shedding light on the marginalization of the history of minorities and overcoming « denial of the enemy », of his identity and his rights according to an outlook aiming at consecrating the viewpoint of the conqueror. Therefore, it is necessary to build a consensus-based relation position to the past, to work on a new writing of the facts and history to forge the way to the preservation of memory allowing for the process of its construction according to a participative approach which guarantees the right to memory while taking into consideration the historical horizon of social change and the future project founded on the respect of Human Rights and the consecration of relations on the basis of mutual respect, democracy and citizenship.
2) Relationship between history and memory: We must point out that there is no relationship between history and memory, however, even if the nature of the historian’s work differs from the nature of memory, both mutually feed into each other, or one to the detriment of the other, and one uses the other in various ways in the framework of attractions between oblivion and memory and their motivations. Also to be pointed out is the stress that has to be placed on the differences existing at the level the methods, or the level of the nature of history and memory (or memories and their crossovers) for the construction, reinforcement and enlargement of a joint memory in the framework of interaction between the different academic, civil, Human Rights and political actors, each one according to its own methodological and cognitive constraints while keeping in the direction of a common horizon so as to be in a position to found shared positions far from any hegemony by any one of these actors.
3) The issue of Moroccan participation: The concept of Moroccan participation was addressed with participants asking questions on the nature, circumstances and forms that participation. Some even went as far as to question the concept of participation by choosing to speak of implication, as participation implies voluntary consent and adhesion, whereas other participants felt that such participation occurred under the pressure of propaganda, manipulation and use of different forms of pressurization to tempt Moroccans through intimidation or motivation. Others put into question the concept of participation as there were infringements to one of the major pillars of voluntary action and adhesion, i.e. acceptance and acquiescence without mentioning the situation prevailing in Morocco as an occupied country. In parallel to the discussion of the concepts of participation, voluntary action and their settings, whether ideological, political or other, some presentations dealt with the situation of Moroccans having participated in the civil war either as citizens of an occupied country, as foreigners, as an army or as victims whose human and professional rights were not respected by the other parties … Indeed, Moroccans participated not only alongside the rebels led by Franco, but also on the Republican side.
4) Moroccan participation and international law: in this framework, the legality of participation was evoked not only from the standpoint of the reality of Morocco as a country under the Protectorate regime, but also from the perspective of international law in force in those days and which requires some degree of interpretation because such law was somewhat unclear. One must also resort to the international agreements in force in those times given the evolution/interconnection of subsidiary issues related to this participation and its ongoing complications. In this regard, this does not only requires building knowledge, but it also implies moving to recognition of the seriousness of the consequences of this war on both peoples in general and on the victims in particular including Moroccan victims and more especially those who were thrown into that war as fuel, without their wanting to and without their age as minors being taken into account.
5) Transitional justice approach: If there were differences between the various presentations on the difficulties to implement this approach and the possibility of using some of its aspects, understanding what happened, revealing the truth, and rendering justice to the victims by granting reparations, etc. are all issues which require a approach based on creative methods in which support to democracy and enforcement of Human Rights are the cornerstone. Indeed, questions crop up in all directions: who gave the order? Who executed it? Who benefited from it? In an effort geared to revealing the circumstances and shedding light on the historical and political situation which made the peoples of both countries live what they lived during that war, still bearing the weight of its consequences which still hangs over their future feeding into the constraints and impediments to reconciliation between the two countries in spite of the history and geography making them a link between two continents and two civilizations, not to mention the geo-strategic dimensions.

The proposals set forth by the various contributions can be summarized in three aspects:
a. Revealing what happened and building knowledge making possible an objective diagnostic of the facts imply the opening of historical archives in both countries, in particular in Spain with the required fostering of historical research without neglecting the support that must be given to the endeavors in the field of Human Rights not only through scientific research but also by establishing spaces for civil society activities and other institutions (governmental and non governmental) in Spain and Morocco as part of partnerships backing ongoing democratic construction in both counties and based on mutual respect between the two peoples.
b. Handling this issue is not limited to the Human Rights of individuals and should go well beyond and address the historical circumstances of an entire society by dealing with the issue of participation in its integrality, as well as the ramifications thereof impeding different aspects of development (human, social and cultural, etc.).
c. Moving on to development programs based on reparations as bridges leading to the construction of fertile spaces for a future based on memory (in the plural meaning of the word) that would make it possible to re-consider the stereotypes on the “other” and in particular on the “Moroccan combatant” and be based on mutual respect of the other and his culture.
d. Through this initiative, the Center would like to see this international seminar open a common workshop between the live forces in the two countries, as an experience not only in the western part of the Mediterranean, but also at the international level. The stakes of this process also reside in the efforts to be made to liberate future generations of the logic of struggle inherited from their forefathers and previous historical periods that still weigh on the future of both peoples. The Center will also be a space open to all initiatives and all actions directed toward a common future and geared to the right of future generations to a joint memory. The Center intends to publish the proceedings of the seminar as a contribution to this workshop.

written by

(Center Scientific Committee Coordinator)
Centre de Mémoire Commune et l’Avenir.

1-  At this occasion the Centre sent a letter to the judge and Spanish Prime Minister, Louis Rodriguez Zapatero so that the situation of Moroccan victims (disappeared, deceased, etc.) can be taken into account. The Center does not consider itself concerned by the decision to close the matter for reasons particular to Spain. Because of that, the Centre decided to deal with this issue and took the initiative of organizing an international seminar with support from a certain number of national and international institutions (governmental and civil).

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